Enzymes are created by the microbial cultures found within fermented foods.
The root word “enzyme” comes from the Greek word “enzyme” which means “to ferment” or “to cause a change.”
The body will always borrow enzymes from different organs for digestive support if one is not eating living foods or taking enzymes supplements.
The nutritional value of food can no longer be simply calculated by calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates because none of these components can be properly assimilated without their active enzymes.
The minerals are essential to enzyme systems either because they are part of the enzyme itself, or they act as co-factors, which enable the enzymes work properly.
You are what you eat, what you digest and what you absorb.
Dr. William Newsome of Canada’s Department of Health and Welfare Food Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, found, for example, that cooked tomatoes contain ten to ninety times more ETU (fetus-deforming and cancer causing compound) than raw tomatoes from the same garden. His studies showed that ETU is the heat caused end product of widely used EBDC fungicides. He states, “Generally the amount of ETU in cooked vegetables was about 50 times more than in uncooked vegetables.”
In animal experiments a classical study by Dr. F. M. Pottinger was conducted for ten years involving nine-hundred cats who were fed cooked and raw food diets. Results were observed for four generations. The cats fed cooked food developed the spectrum of degenerative diseases found in our society. In each succeeding generation, the disease became more chronic. By the third generation, reproduction became impossible. However, cats fed raw food continued to produce from one generation to the next healthy litters of youthful, flexible and active offsprings.
A human is nourished and maintained not by what he eats, but by what is digested. All food is, at least potentially, a poison, until converted into simple structures by enzymes. There are two types of life building chemistries. One is found in raw food and called exogenous; the other is produced within your own body and is referred to as endogenous enzymes.
There are more than 80.000 enzyme systems, each performing a specialized function from digestion of food to color of hair, to movement of the tongue or retina as you are speaking or reading this text.
Intestinal absorbability of enzymes
Because enzymes do not pass through the intestinal membrane in vitro (laboratory culture), the assumption has become general that enzymes cannot be absorbed from the intestinal canal during life. In the experiments on the passage of various sugars the intestinal wall in vivo (in living organism) and in vitro, the physiologist Westenbrink achieved opposite results and concluded that gut permeability in vitro has little resemblance to absorption in vivo.
It is a remarkable fact that the young of most, if not all animals, including man, have weak digestive fluids; particularly do they have low content in saliva. The suckling animal or infant does not need to secret a great quantity of enzymes because milk, its first food, does not demand so many of them for its digestion as it has quite a complement of its own enzymes.
It can be safely accepted as a general principle that the amylase, protease, or lipase content of digestive fluids is determined essentially by the quantity of starch, protein, or fat present in ingested food.
Efficacy of food enzymes in digestion
Heat treated foods do cause a greater outpouring of enzymes into the digestive canal than do raw foods is illustrated by the work of Buddle. Quantitative determinations of trypsin and peptidase were carried out on stools passed in hours by breast-fed and bottle-fed babies. The relative of trypsin of breast-fed babies was significantly, and the amount of peptidase, markedly lower that in bottle-fed babies. Pasteurized milk requires the participation of more digestive enzymes than raw milk, and, consequently, that a raw diet tends to be economical in its use and disposition of digestive enzymes, while a heat-treated diet causes more of them to be used up and excreted.
Pancreas hypertrophy and heat-treated diet
The raw food of herbivora supplies active enzymes which participate in digestion. Active salivary glands are not required and there is no need for a large pancreas. On the other hand, the diet of man is grossly deficient in food enzymes, his salivary glands are highly active, and the human pancreas is proportionally at least twice as large as that of herbivora.
These facts suggest clearly that the enzymes present in raw, uncooked food relieve the pancreas and salivary glands of the necessity of enlarging from excess work. The considerable hypertrophy of the pancreas and salivary glands, which has been found to occur in human races living upon large quantities of cooked carbohydrates, indicates the nature of the intrepid but deplorable compensatory measures the organism is forced to adopt, and is added proof of the profound influence and benefit of enzymes supplied naturally by raw foods.
Those races subsisting largely upon heat-treated carbohydrates appear to have the largest pancreatic and salivary glands.
Enzyme content of body fluids in disease
The enzyme-producing power, or the enzyme reserve of the organism, is fixed within definite limits. The speed of metabolism is determined by the quantity of enzymes engaged. The greater the metabolic exchange within the tissues, the more enzymes are required to participate and, consequently, the greater will be the quantity of them wasted by excretion.
It is interesting to note that one of the main characteristics of all enzymes is their accelerated activity with rising temperature. In other words, enzymes are more active, and will perform more work, in the organism as well as in vitro, at a fever temperature of 40 degrees C than at the normal temperature. This illustrates the precision with which coordination operates within the organism. There is much evidence to indicate that the response of enzymes to elevation in temperature functions as the main mechanism of the body’s immune system.
Nutritional role of exogenous enzymes
Bacteria swallowed with food, water and air, contain enzymes.
A considerable part of feces has been stated by Kendall, Northwestern University, to be composed of the bodies of bacteria.
It cannot be denied that bacteria are efficient and prolific enzyme producers since highly active bacterial enzymes are being used regularly in industry.
Bacterial life in the intestine is prolific and may furnish considerable quantities of accessory enzymes to the organism may be surmised from the investigations of Kendall, Northwestern University Medical School, who concluded that about 50 percent of the total nitrogen of feces is contained in the bodies of dead bacteria.
It is well established that the optimum pH for enzymes varies with the temperature.
When a battery is “dead”, the energy value has vanished; similarly, when enzymes are destroyed by heat, the energy value disappears, leaving behind only its vehicle.
Lymphatic adsorption and distribution of enzymes
It is commonly stated that the pancreas manufactures several hundred mL of pancreatic fluid every day, but it would be more appropriate to say it merely “assembles” this juice. It does not manufacture the water content of the juice, but derives it from the blood stream.
The pancreas weighs 85 grams in an adult human; the salivary glands 75 grams. It seems absurd that a few ounces of tissue could supply from its own substance the enormous quantities of enzymes continually furnished to the intestine, one year after another. This same observation might apply with equal force to the secretions from all glands, including the endocrine glands.
Undoubtedly, the pancreatic cells have the power to manufacture enzymes in the same degree as other cells, but certainly not in the concentration found in pancreatic secretion.
The pancreas is a collecting, transforming, and modifying gland and that it does not manufacture any of the physical components of pancreatic juice from its own substance for any great length of time, but continually receives fresh supplies. There is no reason why this same conclusion should not apply to all secreting glands.
Leukocytes a great assortment of enzymes – perhaps greater than any other cells or tissues. Leukocytes contain a greater variety of enzymes than has been reported for the pancreas. As Willstater called to attention, it appears probable that white blood cells provide transportation for enzymes from place to place within the organism. Since leukocytes are well fortified with the weapons of metabolism, the manner in which they act in phagocytosis is easier to comprehend. Certainly, it seems more feasible to believe that the vital components of enzymes discharged by the pancreas into the duodenum are brought to pancreas from muscles and other tissues, as well as from foods and reabsorbed intestinal secretions, than it is to believe that 85 grams of pancreatic tissue can indefinitely manufacture these active enzymic fractions from its own substance.
While a toll of enzymes must be lost every day by excretion in the feces, urine, and sweat, the laws governing natural phenomena dictate that this tribute be exacted, not only from a few ounces of pancreatic, salivary, gastric, and intestinal secreting tissue, but also and perhaps mainly from the cells comprising a hundred or more pounds of muscular and glandular tissue making up the adult organism.
The pancreas and other enzyme-secreting glands receive a large portion of their enzymes from leukocytes.
It must be remembered in this connection that the optimum pH for maximum activity of enzymes varies within wide limits with the temperature, and that the optimum temperature for maximum activity varies with the pH. As a general rule, decrease in hydrogen ion concentration (higher pH) favors increased activity at higher temperatures (50 to 70 degrees C) and increase in hydrogen ion concentration (lower pH) favors increased activity at lower temperatures (30 to 40 degrees C).
The defensive power of leukocytes resides in their high and diversified enzyme content.
It must be not forgotten that both leukocytosis and increased enzyme activity occur in infectious and febrile diseases. There is a physiological leukocytosis after meals and in pregnancy, and it was pointed out that this is accompanied by a parallel rise in the enzyme content which may be detected either in the blood or urine.
Body fluid enzymes in health and disease
The animal organism cannot manufacture minerals and most of the vitamins, generally speaking, but it can manufacture enzymes out of his own cells. The greater the demand made upon these cells for enzymes, the sooner will their power to produce them be excessively taxed or destroyed. When a certain quantity of enzymes is contributed daily by the food, the demand on the body tissues is less intense and consequently the menace of exhaustion is less formidable.
The Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, Department of Gastrointestinal Research investigators claim that old people have a deficiency of starch digestion in the mouth and stomach. Young people can easily digest 50 grams of white bread in the mouth and stomach, while only 1 percent of it will be digested in the mouth and stomach of old people.
Many acute diseases are associated with high enzyme content of body fluids while many chronic diseases display a low content.
Subordinate role of enzymes in health and disease
Professor Ivy, summarizing important work done at Northwestern University, said: “I suspect that a deficiency of external pancreatic secretion occurs more frequently in man than is now believed”, I am sure, however, that a detailed study of the facts presented will be ample to establish conclusively that enzyme deficiency is not to be considered fundamentally as a depletion of the pancreas or any other enzyme-secreting gland, but as a condition originating in the tissues and ultimately related to decreased consumption of food enzymes occasioned by long-continued use of heat-treated diet.
The pancreas plays only an intermediate and subordinate role and that the underlying failure and exhaustion is traceable back to the tissues of the organism.
Relation of enzyme potential to resistance and longevity
Enzymes emerge as the true yardstick of vitality. Enzymes offer the only means of calculating the vital energy of an organism.
Increasing the heart rate decreases length of life.
The increased metabolic activity with rise in temperature can be explained only on the basis of increased enzyme activity. Increased rate of enzyme depletion begets a shorter life span.
It has been found by Dr. Edward Howell that 47.7 degrees C to be a critical temperature. The human skin can withstand a temperature of 47.2 C for many hours; 47,7 degrees C gradually produces uncomfortable stimuli, while 48,3 degrees C causes a superficial burn. It has also been found that seeds will not germinate if the enzyme content has become diminished beyond a certain point.
Effects of raw or pasteurized milk
However valuable vitamins may be in specific instances, the attempt to balance synthetic diets with vitamins and minerals but without enzymes has already ended in failure. Increased use of vitamins has not retarded the incidence of, or rising death rates from several serious diseases, nor is there any evidence that purified vitamin preparations can produce other than temporary effects except in a few specific conditions.
The prevalent idea that raw food has no virtue except that it supplies vitamins and minerals is a serious menace to human health. Canners are exploiting this notion for commercial reasons. It is pointed out that easily made up by use of vitamin preparations. It has been claimed that the survival of human race on a diet consisting of an abundant amount of cooked food offers a satisfactory rebuttal to the doctrine that raw food is necessary to maintain a satisfactory level of health. But the human being cannot be accepted as symbolic of a healthy organism. The average human life span does not measure up to biological standards. Superficial evidence of early degenerative changes in human beings is clearly discernible by anyone. The prevalence of carries, nasopharyngeal abnormalities, and postural defects among children; excessive hair loss, eye defects, and skin lesions in young adults; and various functional or serious organic diseases in later life; disqualifies man as a prototype of reasonably good health. Incessantly mounting death rates in most degenerative diseases speak against the theory that the prevalent use of large quantities of heat-prepared food by man is normal or optimal.
Thermo-labile supplementary factors in meat
If any doubt exists as to the utter lack of defense of enzymes against destruction by mild heat, Dr. Edward Howell can supply proof, based on his own experiments, as well as those of more than 50 technical men and physicians, that enzymes, if heated in water, are destroyed more or less completely in the temperature range from 48 degrees C to 65 degrees C. Long heating at 48 degrees C or short heating at 65 degrees C kills enzymes. Heating at 60 to 80 for half an hour completely kills any enzyme.
Diet and health of primitive and modernized Eskimos
It must be brought out that most savage and primitive races, with the exception of the isolated Eskimo, utilize cookery. The primitive, isolated polar Eskimo is perhaps the only primitive type not having the medicine man as an official member of the tribe with a full complement of remedies. It is true, they have their witch doctors, but these act mostly in the capacity of spiritual leaders, although it is said they have been known to do crude but skillful surgery in instances of injury. However, it appears that the primitive Eskimo has had neither the urge nor the necessity to develop the art of preparing and using substances as medicines.
Everyone acquainted with the application of therapeutic diets has had occasion to witness the beneficial effects often following use of the raw diet in one form or another.
Dr. Thomas, physician for the Macmillan Arctic Expedition, found that the Greenland Eskimo, on a carnivorous diet, ate his food usually and preferably raw and exhibited no increased tendency to vascular or renal disease, scurvy, or rickets, while the Labrador Eskimo, whose meat was cooked and whose diet included many prepared, dried, and canned articles, is very much subject to scurvy and rickets.
Weston Price visited the Alaskan Eskimo to determine the incidence of caries and found the number of teeth involved in caries for each 1000 teeth examined was 0.9 for the primitive Eskimo and 130 for the modernized Eskimo.
Therapeutic value of raw food diets
The therapeutic value of raw diets is clearly recognized by many physicians. Generally, the principle is utilized by increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables which are palatable in the natural, raw state, and decreasing the amount of heat-treated, high calorie foods. Dr. Edward Howell found, however, that the same results are attainable in many instances without decreasing the calorie value of the diet by replacing the heat-treated, high-calorie foods with palatable raw foods of substantially equal calorie value.
It might be emphasized that destruction of enzymes by heat requires that they be subjected to the influence of moist heat. For instance, it has been shown that heating powdered pancreatin or malt amylase to 100 degrees C does not result in material damage. Dry heat is not destructive except when the temperature is raised to 150 degrees C.
It is just as much an error to measure the value of food by its vitamin content, as it was 30 years ago to judge the useful qualities of food solely by the amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and fat contained in it.
The old experiments performed in vitro to test the ability of enzymes to survive acid treatment, are no longer considered applicable to physiological conditions within the organism.
Enzymes, like vitamins are normal constituents of all vegetable and animal tissue in the raw natural state. Hence it is obvious that all wild animals ingest enzymes with their food. The same was true of an early type of man before the age of fire and cookery. Consequently, in any question concerning the status of food enzymes in nutrition, the burden of proof rests on those choosing the position that food enzymes are superfluous. This untenable position postulates the inconsistency that food enzymes have left no imprint upon intricate physiological processes during countless eons of time in which the organism was bequeathed a full complement of food enzymes at every meal.
Gut impermeability to enzymes in vitro has little resemblance to the mechanism of absorption of enzymes in the living intestine.
Since foods of high caloric values contain far more enzymes in the raw state than low calorie foods, it is not possible to compensate for the enzymes lost in a heat-treated meal of meat and potato, for instance, by an addition of raw vegetables such as salad. This point requires special emphasis, because fruits and leafy vegetables are commonly utilized to balance the diet for vitamins and minerals.
While the enzyme value of a single meal of raw food is small, the sum total of enzymes in a raw food diet eaten during the course of a lifetime far exceeds not only the enzyme value of secreted digestive juices but also the enzyme value of the whole organism. It follows, that if exogenous enzymes are permitted to participate in the labors of digestion and metabolism less endogenous enzymes will be required. Enzyme activity exacts a toll on the organism entailing daily loss of a certain amount of “spent” enzymes in the urine, feces and sweat. If no enzyme replacements are taken in from the outside, the normal daily excretion of enzymes results in an earlier depletion of the enzyme potential of the body and consequently to earlier onset of senility and death.
The usual method of testing the vitamin value of food by animal feeding is insufficient to indicate the complete adequacy of a diet since the observations occupy only the early growing period of life cycle, equivalent to the period of early maturity in human beings. The technique of vitamins essaying is faulty in so far as it fails to suggest the requirements for an optimum diet promoting long life and freedom from disease during the full period of the life span. The fact that a rat may display apparent good health during the virile growing period upon a supposedly adequate diet judged by vitamin standards is no proof that the same diet will be sufficient to maintain good health to an advanced age or even to middle life. On the contrary, feeding experiments extending throughout the life span of an animal have shown that experimental animals develop many degenerative diseases in the later period of life cycle when fed a diet supplemented only by vitamins.
The fact that the pancreas of herbivorous animals, subsisting exclusively upon raw plant substances, is relatively very small (relatively less than half as large as the human) offers convincing testimony of the important part played by food enzymes in digestion. Not only is the pancreas small in herbivora, but in cattle and sheep the salivary glands are also inactive, furnishing no enzymes to assist in carbohydrate digestion whatsoever. And this is in spite of the fact that the food of these herbivora is largely of a carbohydrate nature which would seem to indicate need for a large pancreas and highly active salivary glands. How is it possible to reconcile these various facts unless it is granted that the enzymes consumed with the food take over a large part of the digestion in herbivora?
Another link in the chain of evidence tracing effects to their causes is supplied by the illuminating behavior of the human and animal pancreas in response to extra work imposed by heat-treated, enzyme-deficient diet. The available evidence indicates that Orientals on a high carbohydrate cooked diet, essentially rice, display a pancreas approximately 50% heavier than that of Americans. The salivary glands of Orientals are also larger. Organ weight studies on experimental animals show that when a group of rats (rats have active salivary glands) is placed upon a heat-treated, high carbohydrate diet and sacrificed after a period of feeding, the average weight of the pancreas and salivary glands shows a marked increase over a similar control group of animals on a mixed diet. This indicates that the pancreas and salivary glands are forced to undergo considerable hypertrophy to furnish the additional enzymes required, thus confirming experimentally in animals what has been observed in human beings. It is a singular circumstance that whereas cattle and sheep, ingesting a full quota of food enzymes, consummate the digestion of a comparatively high carbohydrate raw diet with only a small pancreas and without help from the salivary glands, human beings on a heat-treated mixed diet, lacking food enzymes, require a large pancreas and active salivary glands to digest a smaller amount of carbohydrate. And furthermore, a high carbohydrate, heat-treated diet engenders still greater enlargement of the pancreas and salivary glands in human and animals.
It is interesting to note, that one of the main characteristics of enzymes is their accelerated activity with rising temperature, i. e. enzymes work faster at a fever temperature of 40 degrees C than at normal body temperature. There is much evidence to indicate that the increased response of enzymes to elevation in temperature functions as the main mechanism of defense of the body against invading agents. For, whereas bacterial activity decreases with increase in fever, enzyme activity increases with increase in fever. In this connection, it may be recalled that the white blood cell which protects against infection is endowed with a greater diversity of enzymes than any other cell. It is not unlikely that, mainly by virtue of its enzyme content, the white blood cell is enabled to display the digestive action against bacteria characteristic of phagocytosis.
Enzymes, being capable of exact measurement, emerge as the true yardstick of vitality.
The life span of water fleas and fruit flies, kept at various temperatures, varied with temperature. In a cold environment, not conducive to rapid exhaustion of enzymes and promoting sluggish physical activity, life lasted 108 days in water fleas, while at a temperature 20 degrees higher, where enzymes are used faster and where insects are very active, duration of life was only 26 days. At the warmer temperature, the life span was decreased about 400 per cent, but the heart beat was increased about 400 percent. The total number of heart beats (some 15 million) in the life of a water flea is about the same regardless of length of life, showing that the organism has a fixed sum total of vitality or enzyme potential to spend.
Enzymes are normal constituents of all cellular matter.
All wild animals live exclusively on raw food including a full quota of enzymes. So did an early type of man.
Endogenous enzymes are secreted in response to specific stimuli by starch, protein, fat, etc.
Jungle animals are free from degenerative disease. The formerly high mortality and morbidity in zoo animals has taken a steep downward turn with the advent of the raw food diet.
Author Artūras Bartašius